|Turkey is a Eurasian
country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in south western Asia
and the Balkan region of south eastern Europe.
||Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic whose
political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa
Kemal Atatürk following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of
World War I. Since then, Turkey has increasingly integrated with the West
while continuing to foster relations with the Eastern world. In October
2013, Turkey opened a 13.6 km (8.5 mile) railway tunnel under the Bosphorus,
adding to the existing road links by bridge and ferry services. The Marmaray
tunnel fulfils a plan to link Europe and Asia first suggested in 1860 by the
Ottoman sultan Abdülmejid.
The climate of Turkey is a Mediterranean temperate climate, with hot, dry
summers and mild, wet and cold winters, though conditions can be much
harsher in the more arid interior.
Turkey's main trading partners are the European Union, United States, Russia
and Japan. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European
Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for
exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment
into the country.
|Turkey has been a member of NATO since 1952; it is a
member of the G-20 group of major economies, and of the OECD. With a
majority of its people being Muslims, Turkey is also a member of the
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and geographically and politically sits
at the interface between East and West.
Turkey has 11 Heritages on the UNESCO World Heritage list. Among these
are the Archaeological Site of Troy; the capital city of the Hittites,
called Hattusha; the 13th century Great Mosque and Hospital in Divriği,
the Ottoman capital prior to the conquest of Istanbul; and the Neolithic
site of Çatalhöyük in Anatolia, one of the world’s oldest towns. Turkey
has many must-see locations in addition to these: the amazing natural
landscape of Cappadocia, perhaps best seen from a hot air balloon at
dawn; the Blue Mosque and nearby Hagia Sophia in Istanbul; the
magnificent Düden and Manavgat Falls near Antalya; the ancient Greek
city of Ephesus on the Aegean coast, once the Roman capital; and the
World War 1 battlefields at Gallipoli. Then there are numerous seaside
resorts on the Mediterranean, the Aegean, and the Black Sea, and
opportunities for hiking and winter sports in the mountains and forests
of the Uludağ National Park..... Turkey truly has it all!
The only city in the world built on two continents, Istanbul has numerous
architectural sites which reflect its long and varied history. Roman,
Byzantine and Ottoman buildings abound, such as the Topkapi Palace and the
Yildiz Palace and Dolmabahçe on the shores of the Istanbul Strait. Other
things to do include taking a boat trip along the Bosphorus under the two
magnificent suspension bridges, and shopping, or just looking, in the Grand
Bazaar. For something different, cross the Golden Horn Bridge or take the
ferry to Karaköy and Tünel to ascend the Galata Tower for a splendid view
back to Istanbul, or take a trip to the islands of Istanbul to relax in the
sun and sea.